default logo
TC 56



Dependability Standards and Supporting Standards

Note: Use ‘Ctrl + F’ to search by word or number within a page

  1. Core standards
    1. Dependability management
    2. Vocabulary
  2. Process standards
    1. Reliability and availability
    2. Maintainability and supportability
    3. Risk assessment
    4. System dependability
  3. Support standards
    1. Reliability and availability
      1. Reliability and availability – Analysis techniques
      2. Reliability and availability – Data estimation and assessment
      3. Reliability and availability – Reliability testing and screening
      4. Reliability and availability – Reliability growth
    2. Maintainability and supportability
      1. Maintainability and supportability – Maintainability
      2. Maintainability and supportability – Supportability
    3. Risk assessment
      1. Risk assessment – Risk assessment support
    4. System dependability
      1. System dependability – System engineering
      2. System dependability – Human aspects
      3. System dependability – Software
  4. Associated standards
    1. Associated IEC standards with dependability relevance
    2. Associated ISO standards with dependability relevance

1. Core standards

1.1 Management


IEC 60300-1:2014


Dependability management – Part 1: Guidance for management and application

IEC 60300-1:2014 establishes a framework for dependability management. It provides guidance on dependability management of products, systems, processes or services involving hardware, software and human aspects or any integrated combinations of these elements. It presents guidance on planning and implementation of dependability activities and technical processes throughout the life cycle taking into account other requirements such as those relating to safety and the environment. This standard gives guidelines for management and their technical personnel to assist them to optimize dependability  

IEC 60300-2:2004

Dependability management – Part 2: Guidelines for dependability management
Subsumed within IEC 60300-1

<< back to structure Go to top

1.2 Vocabulary


IEC 60050-191:1990

International Electrotechnical Vocabulary (IEV) – Chapter 191: Dependability and quality of service
Replaced by IEC 60500-192:2015

IEC 60050-192:2015

International Electrotechnical Vocabulary (IEV) – Part 192: Dependability 

IEC 60050-692:2017

International Electrotechnical Vocabulary (IEV) – Part 692: Generation, transmission and distribution of electrical energy – Dependability and quality of service of electric power systems

IEC 61703:2016


Mathematical expressions for reliability, availability, maintainability and maintenance support terms

IEC 61703:2016 provides mathematical expressions for selected reliability, availability, maintainability and maintenance support measures defined in IEC 60050-192:2015. In addition, it introduces some terms not covered in IEC 60050-192:2015. They are related to aspects of the system of item classes (see hereafter). According to IEC 60050-192:2015, dependability [192-01-22] is the ability of an item to perform as and when required and an item [192-01-01] can be an individual part, component, device, functional unit, equipment, subsystem, or system. To account for mathematical constraints, this standard splits the items between the individual items considered as a whole (e.g. individual components) and the systems made of several individual items. It provides general considerations for the mathematical expressions for systems as well as individual items but the individual items which are easier to model are analysed in more detail with regards to their repair aspects. This standard is mainly applicable to hardware dependability, but many terms and their definitions may be applied to items containing software. This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition published in 2001. This edition constitutes a technical revision. This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition:
– standard made as self containing as possible;
– item split between individual items and systems;
– generalization of the dependability concepts for systems made of several components [introduction of the conditional failure intensity (Vesely failure rate);
– introduction of the state-transition and the Markovian models;
– generalization of the availability to production availability];
– introduction of curves to illustrate the various concepts.

Keywords: mathematical expressions for dependability

<< back to structure Go to top

2. Process standards

2.1 Reliability and availability


IEC 60300-3-1:2003


Dependability management – Part 3-1: Application guide – Analysis techniques for dependability – Guide on methodology

Gives a general overview of commonly used dependability analysis techniques. It describes the usual methodologies, their advantages and disadvantages, data input and other conditions for using various techniques. It is an introduction to selected methodologies and is intended to provide the necessary information for choosing the most appropriate analysis methods.

<< back to structure Go to top

2.2 Maintainability and supportability


IEC 60300-3-10:2001


Dependability management – Part 3-10: Application guide – Maintainability

The application guide can be used to implement a maintainability programme covering the initiation, development and in-service phases of a product, which form part of the tasks in IEC 60300-2. It provides guidance on how the maintenance aspects of the tasks should be considered in order to achieve optimum maintainability. It uses other IEC standards, notably IEC 60706, as reference documents or tools as to how a task should be undertaken. This standard replaces Sections 1 and 3 of IEC 60706-1:1982.

IEC 60300-3-12:2011


Dependability management – Part 3-12: Application guide – Integrated logistics support

An application guide for establishing an integrated logistic support (ILS) management system. It is intended to be used by a wide range of suppliers including large and small companies wishing to offer a competitive and quality item which is optimized for the purchaser and supplier for the complete life cycle of the item. It also includes common practices and logistic data analyses that are related to ILS. This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition:
– provision of a better overview of the whole ILS process;
– updating of the document to align with associated dependability standards that were introduced after the previous edition.

IEC 60300-3-14:2004


Dependability management – Part 3-14: Application guide – Maintenance and maintenance support

Describes a framework for maintenance and maintenance support and the various minimal common practices that should be undertaken. Outlines in a generic manner, management, processes and techniques related to maintenance and maintenance support that are necessary to achieve adequate dependability to meet the operational needs of the customer. Applicable to items, which include all types of products, equipment and systems (hardware and associated software). Most of these require a certain level of maintenance to ensure that their required functionality, dependability, capability, economic, safety and regulatory requirements are achieved.

IEC 62402:2019


Obsolescence management – Application guide

IEC 62402:2019 provides requirements and guidance for obsolescence management applicable to any organization that is dependent on another organization to obtain value from the usefulness of the items that it provides. A cost-effective obsolescence management process and the activities used to implement the process are applicable throughout all phases of an item’s life cycle. This document covers the following areas:
– establishing an obsolescence management policy;
– establishing an infrastructure and an organization;
– developing an obsolescence management plan (OMP);
– developing strategies to minimize obsolescence during design;
– determining an obsolescence management approach;
– selecting obsolescence resolution and implementation;
– measuring and improving the performance of the outcomes of the obsolescence management activities.
Guidance on obsolescence management is included as notes, in the informative annexes and references in the bibliography. This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition published in 2007. This edition constitutes a technical revision. This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition:
a) this document has now been written with requirements as a standard, not a guide;
b) this document continues to have guidance in the informative annexes;
c) this document has been written as a general process for all technologies and items.

Keywords: obsolescence management

IEC 62550:2017


Spares part provisioning  

IEC 62550:2017 describes requirements for spare parts provisioning as a part of supportability activities that affect dependability performance so that continuity of operation of products, equipment and systems for their intended application can be sustained. This document is intended for use by a wide range of suppliers, maintenance support organizations and users and can be applied to all items. 

<< back to structure Go to top

2.3 Risk assessment


IEC 60300-3-9:1995

Dependability management – Part 3: Application guide – Section 9: Risk analysis of technological systems
Partially replaced by IEC/ISO 31010:2009 (withdrawn)

IEC 31010:2019


Risk management – Risk assessment techniques

IEC 31010:2019 is published as a double logo standard with ISO and provides guidance on the selection and application of techniques for assessing risk in a wide range of situations. The techniques are used to assist in making decisions where there is uncertainty, to provide information about particular risks and as part of a process for managing risk. The document provides summaries of a range of techniques, with references to other documents where the techniques are described in more detail. This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition published in 2009. This edition constitutes a technical revision. This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition:
– more detail is given on the process of planning, implementing, verifying and validating the use of the techniques;
– the number and range of application of the techniques has been increased;
– the concepts covered in ISO 31000 are no longer repeated in this standard.

Keywords: uncertainty, risk management

IEC 62198:2013


Managing risk in projects – Application guidelines

Applicable to any project with a technological content. Provides a general introduction to project risk management, its subprocesses and influencing factors. Guidelines are provided on the organizational requirements for implementing the process of risk management appropriate to the various phases of a project

<< back to structure Go to top

2.4 System dependability


IEC 62853:2018


Open systems dependability

Provides guidance in relation to a set of requirements placed upon system life cycles in order for an open system to achieve open systems dependability. This document elaborates on IEC 60300-1 by providing details of the changes needed to accommodate the characteristics of open systems. It defines process views based on ISO/IEC/IEEE 15288:2015, which identifies the set of system life cycle processes. This document is applicable to life cycles of products, systems, processes or services involving hardware, software and human aspects or any integrated combinations of these elements. For open systems, security is especially important since the systems are particularly exposed to attack. This document can be used to improve the dependability of open systems and to provide assurance that the process views specific to open systems achieve their expected outcomes. It helps an organization define the activities and tasks that need to be undertaken to achieve dependability objectives in an open system, including dependability related communication, dependability assessment and evaluation of dependability throughout system life cycles. 

Keywords: dependability of open systems 

IEC 60300-3-15:2009


Dependability management – Part 3-15: Application guide – Engineering of system dependability

Provides guidance for an engineering system’s dependability and describes a process for realization of system dependability through the system life cycle. This standard is applicable to new system development and for enhancement of existing systems involving interactions of system functions consisting of hardware, software and human elements.

IEC TS 62775:2016


Application guidelines – Technical and financial processes for implementing asset management systems

This technical specification, shows how the IEC dependability suite of standards, systems engineering and the IFRS and IAS standards can support the requirements of asset management, as described by the ISO 5500x suite of standards. It provides:
(a) a brief introduction to asset management and the requirements for an AMS,
(b) a description of the benefits from the use of an established and common set of AMS processes and procedures, tools and techniques to manage assets, and
(c) a description of the relationships between the AMS and the tools and techniques, processes and procedures of:
(i) ISO/IEC/IEEE 15288:2015, Systems and software engineering,
(ii) System lifecycle processes,
(iii) IEC dependability standards in particular IEC 60300-3-15, and
(iv) relevant IFRS and supporting IAS standards.
This technical specification is intended for:
(a) asset managers who wish to identify and implement technical and financial processes within an AMS, using dependability techniques and IFRS and IAS standards respectively, and
(b) systems and dependability engineers who need to apply their technical processes and techniques within an AMS.

Keywords: asset management, decision-making processes, ISO 5500x

<< back to structure Go to top

3 .Support standards

3.1.1 Reliability and availability support – analysis techniques


IEC 60812:2018


Failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA and FMECA)

IEC 60812:2018 explains how failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA), including the failure modes, effects and criticality analysis (FMECA) variant, is planned, performed, documented and maintained. The purpose of FMEA is to establish how items or processes might fail to perform their function so that any required treatments could be identified. An FMEA provides a systematic method for identifying modes of failure together with their effects on the item or process, both locally and globally. It may also include identifying the causes of failure modes. Failure modes can be prioritized to support decisions about treatment. Where the ranking of criticality involves at least the severity of consequences, and often other measures of importance, the analysis is known as failure modes, effects and criticality analysis (FMECA). This document is applicable to hardware, software, processes including human action, and their interfaces, in any combination. An FMEA can be used in a safety analysis, for regulatory and other purposes, but this being a generic standard, does not give specific guidance for safety applications. This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition published in 2006. This edition constitutes a technical revision.This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition:
a) the normative text is generic and covers all applications;
b) examples of applications for safety, automotive, software and (service) processes have been added as informative annexes;
c) tailoring the FMEA for different applications is described;
d) different reporting formats are described, including a database information system;
e) alternative means of calculating risk priority numbers (RPN) have been added;
f) a criticality matrix based method has been added;
g) the relationship to other dependability analysis methods have been described.

Keywords: failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA), failure modes effects and criticality analysis (FMECA)

IEC 61025:2006
Ed 3.0 in progress


Fault tree analysis (FTA)

Describes fault tree analysis and provides guidance on its application to perform an analysis, identifies appropriate assumptions, events and failure modes, and provides identification rules and symbols.

IEC 61078:2016


Reliability block diagrams

This international standard describes:
i) the requirements to apply when reliability block diagrams (RBDs) are used in dependability analysis;
ii) the procedures for modelling the dependability of a system with reliability block diagrams;
iii) how to use RBDs for qualitative and quantitative analysis;
iv) the procedures for using the RBD model to calculate availability, failure frequency and reliability measures for different types of systems with constant (or time dependent) probabilities of blocks success/failure, and for non-repaired blocks or repaired blocks;
v) some theoretical aspects and limitations in performing calculations for availability, failure frequency and reliability measures;
vi) the relationships with fault tree analysis (see IEC 61025) and Markov techniques (see IEC 61165).
This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition published in 2006. This edition constitutes a technical revision. This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition:
i) the structure of the document has been entirely reconsidered, the title modified and the content extended and improved to provide more information about availability, reliability and failure frequency calculations;
ii) Clause 3 has been extended and clauses have been introduced to describe the electrical analogy, the “non-coherent” RBDs and the “dynamic” RBDs;
iii) Annex B about Boolean algebra methods has been extended;
iv) Annex C (Calculations of time dependent probabilities), Annex D (Importance factors), Annex E (RBD driven Petri net models) and Annex F (Numerical examples and curves) have been introduced. 

Keywords: reliability block diagram (RBD)

IEC 61165:2006


Application of Markov techniques

This international standard provides guidance on the application of Markov techniques to model and analyze a system and estimate reliability, availability, maintainability and safety measures. This standard is applicable to all industries where systems, which exhibit state-dependent behaviour, have to be analyzed. The Markov techniques covered by this standard assume constant time-independent state transition rates. Such techniques are often called homogeneous Markov techniques.

IEC 61649:2008


Weibull analysis

Provides methods for analysing data from a Weibull distribution using continuous parameters such as time to failure, cycles to failure, mechanical stress, etc. This standard is applicable whenever data on strength parameters, e.g. times to failure, cycles, stress, etc. are available for a random sample of items operating under test conditions or in-service, for the purpose of estimating measures of reliability performance of the population from which these items were drawn. The main changes with respect to the previous edition are as follows: the title has been shortened and simplified to read “Weibull analysis”; and provision of methods for both analytical and graphical solutions have been added.

IEC 62502:2010


Analysis techniques for dependability – Event tree analysis (ETA)

Specifies the consolidated basic principles of event tree analysis (ETA) and provides guidance on modelling the consequences of an initiating event as well as analysing these consequences qualitatively and quantitatively in the context of dependability and risk related measures

IEC 62551:2012


Analysis techniques for dependability – Petri net techniques

Provides guidance on a Petri net based methodology for dependability purposes. It supports modelling a system, analysing the model and presenting the analysis results. This methodology is oriented to dependability-related measures with all the related features, such as reliability, availability, production availability, maintainability and safety (e.g. safety integrity level (SIL) [2] related measures).
Key words: Petri net based methodology for dependability purposes

IEC TR 63039:2016


Probabilistic risk analysis of technological systems – Estimation of final event rate at a given initial state

Provides guidance on probabilistic risk analysis (hereafter referred to as risk analysis) for the systems composed of electrotechnical items and is applicable (but not limited) to all electrotechnical industries where risk analyses are performed. This document deals with the following topics from the perspective of risk analysis: defining the essential terms and concepts; specifying the types of events; classifying the occurrences of events; describing the usage of modified symbols and methods of graphical representation for ETA, FTA and Markov techniques for applying those modified techniques complementarily to the complex systems; suggesting ways to handle the event frequency/rate of complex systems; suggesting ways to estimate the event frequency/rate based on risk monitoring; providing illustrative and practical examples.

Keywords: probabilistic risk analysis, effects of uncertainty, events and associated risks

<< back to structure Go to top

3.1.2 Reliability and availability support – data estimation and assessment


IEC 60300-3-2:2004


Dependability management – Part 3-2: Application guide – Collection of dependability data from the field

This part of IEC 60300 provides guidelines for the collection of data relating to reliability, maintainability, availability and maintenance support performance of items operating in the field. It deals in general terms with the practical aspects of data collection and presentation and briefly explores the related topics of data analysis and presentation of results. Emphasis is made on the need to incorporate the return of experience from the field in the dependability process as a main activity.

IEC 60319:1999

Presentation and specification of reliability data for electronic components

Describes the information needed for characterizing reliability of a component, and also the detailed requirements for reporting reliability data. Gives guidance to component users as to how they should specify their reliability requirements to component manufacturers. The data, derived from laboratory tests, should enable circuit and equipment designers to evaluate the reliability of circuits and systems.

IEC 60863:1986

Presentation of reliability, maintainability and availability predictions
Replaced by IEC 60319:1999 and IEC 61709.1996

IEC 61650:1997


Reliability data analysis techniques – Procedures for comparison of two constant failure rates and two constant failure (event) intensities

Specifies procedures to compare two observed – failure rates; – failure intensities; – rates/intensities of relevant events. The procedures are used to determine whether an apparent difference between the two sets of observations can be considered statistically significant. Numerical methods and a graphical procedure are prescribed. Simple practical examples are provided to illustrate how the procedures can be applied.

IEC 61709:2017


Electronic components – Reliability – Reference conditions for failure rates and stress models for conversion

IEC 61709:2017 gives guidance on the use of failure rate data for reliability prediction of electric components used in equipment. The method presented in this document uses the concept of reference conditions which are the typical values of stresses that are observed by components in the majority of applications. Reference conditions are useful since they provide a known standard basis from which failure rates can be modified to account for differences in environment from the environments taken as reference conditions. Each user can use the reference conditions defined in this document or use their own. When failure rates stated at reference conditions are used it allows realistic reliability predictions to be made in the early design phase. The stress models described herein are generic and can be used as a basis for conversion of failure rate data given at these reference conditions to actual operating conditions when needed and this simplifies the prediction approach. Conversion of failure rate data is only possible within the specified functional limits of the components. This document also gives guidance on how a database of component failure data can be constructed to provide failure rates that can be used with the included stress models. Reference conditions for failure rate data are specified, so that data from different sources can be compared on a uniform basis. If failure rate data are given in accordance with this document then additional information on the specified conditions can be dispensed with. This document does not provide base failure rates for components – rather it provides models that allow failure rates obtained by other means to be converted from one operating condition to another operating condition. The prediction methodology described in this document assumes that the parts are being used within its useful life. The methods in this document have a general application but are specifically applied to a selection of component types as defined in Clauses 6 to 20 and I.2. This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition, published in 2011. This edition constitutes a technical revision. This third edition is a merger of IEC 61709:2011 and IEC TR 62380:2004. This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition: addition of 4.5 Components choice, 4.6 Reliability growth during the deployment phase of new equipment, 4.7 How to use this document, and of Clause 19 Printed circuit boards (PCB) and Clause 20 Hybrid circuits with respect to IEC TR 62380; addition of failure modes of components in Annex A; modification of Annex B, Thermal model for semiconductors, adopted and revised from IEC TR 62380; modification of Annex D, Considerations on mission profile; modification of Annex E, Useful life models, adopted and revised from IEC TR 62380; revision of Annex F (former B.2.6.4), Physics of failure; addition of Annex G (former Annex C), Considerations for the design of a data base on failure rates, complemented with parts of IEC 60319; addition of Annex H, Potential sources of failure rate data and methods of selection; addition of Annex J, Presentation of component reliability data, based on IEC 60319.

Keywords: failure rate data, reliability prediction of electric components

IEC 61710:2013


Power law model – Goodness-of-fit tests and estimation methods

IEC 61710:2013 specifies procedures to estimate the parameters of the power law model, to provide confidence intervals for the failure intensity, to provide prediction intervals for the times to future failures, and to test the goodness-of-fit of the power law model to data from repairable items. It is assumed that the time to failure data have been collected from an item, or some identical items operating under the same conditions (e.g. environment and load). This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition, published in 2000, and constitutes a technical revision. The main changes with respect to the previous edition are listed below: the inclusion of an additional Annex C on Bayesian estimation for the power law model.

Keywords: power law model, Bayesian estimation, reliability of repairable items

IEC 62308:2006


Equipment reliability – Reliability assessment methods

This international standard describes early reliability assessment methods for items based on field data and test data for components and modules. It is applicable to mission, safety and business critical, high integrity and complex items. It contains information on why early reliability estimates are required and how and where the assessment would be used.

IEC 62309:2004


Dependability of products containing reused parts – Requirements for functionality and tests

Introduces the concept to check the reliability and functionality of reused parts and their usage within new products. Also provides information and criteria about the tests/analysis required for products containing such reused parts, which are declared “qualified-as-good-as-new” relative to the designed life of the product. The purpose of this standard is to ensure by tests and analysis that the reliability and functionality of a new product containing reused parts is comparable to a product with only new parts.

IEC 62741:2015


Demonstration of dependability requirements – The dependability case

Provides guidance on the content and application of a dependability case and establishes general principles for the preparation of a dependability case. This standard is written in a basic project context where a customer orders a system that meets dependability requirements from a supplier and then manages the system until its retirement. The methods provided in this standard may be modified and adapted to other situations as needed. The dependability case is normally produced by the customer and supplier but can also be used and updated by other organizations. For example, certification bodies and regulators may examine the submitted case to support their decisions and users of the system may update/expand the case, particularly where they use the system for a different purpose.

Keywords: dependability, reliability, availability, maintainability, supportability, usability, testability, durability.

IEC/TR 62380:2004

Reliability data handbook – Universal method for reliability prediction of electronic components, PCBs and equipment
Replaced by IEC 61709:2017

IEC 63142
Ed 1.0 in progress

A global methodology for reliability data prediction of electronic components


IEC TR 63162
Ed 1.0 in progress

Electric Components – Reliability – Reference failure rates at reference conditions.


<< back to structure Go to top

3.1.3 Reliability and availability support – reliability testing and screening


IEC 60300-3-5:2001


Dependability management – Part 3-5: Application guide – Reliability test conditions and statistical test principles

Provides guidelines for the planning and performing of reliability tests and the use of statistical methods to analyse test data. Describes the tests related to repaired and non-repaired items together with tests for constant and non-constant failure intensity and constant and non-constant failure rate. The purpose of these tests is to discover weaknesses in the design and to undertake actions to eliminate these weaknesses and thereby improve performance, quality, safety, robustness, reliability and availability and reduce costs.

IEC 60300-3-7:1999

Dependability management – Part 3-7: Application guide – Reliability stress screening of electronic hardware
Partially replaced by IEC 61163-1:2006 and IEC 61163-2:1998

IEC 60410:1973

Sampling plans and procedures for inspection by attributes
Replaced by ISO 28598 series

IEC 60605-2:1994


Equipment reliability testing – Part 2: Design of test cycles

It applies to the design of operating and environmental test cycles referred to in 8.1 and 8.2 of IEC 60605-1:1978.

IEC 60605-3-1:1986

Equipment reliability testing – Part 3: Preferred test conditions. Indoor portable equipment – Low degree of simulation

IEC 60605-3-2:1986

Equipment reliability testing – Part 3: Preferred test conditions. Equipment for stationary use in weather protected locations  – High degree of simulation

IEC 60605-3-3:1992

Equipment reliability testing – Part 3: Preferred test conditions – Section 3: Test cycle 3: Equipment for stationary use in partially weather protected locations – Low degree of simulation

IEC 60605-3-4:1992

Equipment reliability testing – Part 3: Preferred test conditions – Section 4: Test cycle 4: Equipment for portable and non-stationary use – Low degree of simulation

IEC 60605-3-5:1996

Equipment reliability testing – Part 3: Preferred test conditions – Section 5: Test cycle 5: Ground mobile equipment – Low degree of simulation

IEC 60605-3-6:1996

Equipment reliability testing – Part 3: Preferred test conditions – Section 6: Test cycle 6: Outdoor transportable equipment – Low degree of simulation

IEC 60605-4:2001


Equipment reliability testing – Part 4: Statistical procedures for exponential distribution – Point estimates, confidence intervals, prediction intervals and tolerance intervals

Provides statistical methods for evaluating point estimates, confidence intervals, prediction intervals and tolerance intervals for the failure rate of items whose time to failure follows an exponential distribution.

IEC 60605-5:1982

Equipment reliability testing. Part 5 : Compliance test plans for success ratio
Replaced with IEC 61123:1991

IEC 60605-6:2007


Equipment reliability testing – Part 6: Tests for the validity and estimation of the constant failure rate or constant failure intensity

Specifies procedures to verify the assumption of a constant failure rate or constant failure intensity as defined in IEC 60050(191). These procedures are applicable whenever it is necessary to verify these assumptions. This may be due to a requirement or for the purpose of assessing the behaviour in time of the failure rate or the failure intensity. The major technical changes with respect to the previous edition concern the inclusion of corrected formulae for tests previously included in a corrigendum, and the addition of new methods for the analysis of multiple items.

IEC 61070:1991


Compliance test procedures for steady-state availability

Specifies techniques for availability performance testing of frequently maintained items when the availability performance measure used is either steady-state availability or steady-state unavailability. Applies to compliance testing of the steady-state availability.

IEC 61123:1991
Ed 2.0 in progress


Reliability testing – Compliance test plans for success ratio

Specifies procedures for applying and preparing compliance test plans for success ratio or failure ratio. The procedures are based on the assumption that each trial is statistically independent. Supersedes IEC 60605-5 and its amendment 1.

IEC 61124:2013


Reliability testing – Compliance tests for constant failure rate and constant failure intensity

IEC 61124:2012 gives a number of optimized test plans, the corresponding operating characteristic curves and expected test times. In addition the algorithms for designing test plans using a spreadsheet program are also given, together with guidance on how to choose test plans. This standard specifies procedures to test whether an observed value of: failure rate, failure intensity, meantime to failure (MTTF), and mean operating time between failures (MTBF). The main changes with respect to the previous edition are as follows:
– A number of new test plans have been added based on the Russian standard GOST R 27.402 [1], and it is intended to align the new edition of MIL-HDBK-781 [2] with this edition. Algorithms for optimizing test plans using a spreadsheet program are given and a number of optimized test plans are listed. Furthermore, emphasis is laid on the fact that the test should be repeated following design changes;
– Discrepancies in test plans A, B as well as Annexes A and B that originated in IEC 60605-7 [3], now withdrawn, have been corrected so these test plans differ from those given in previous editions of IEC 61124. As requested by the National Committees, mathematical background material and spreadsheet program information has been moved to informative annexes. In addition, the symbol lists have been divided, so that some annexes have separate lists of symbols;
– Guidance on how to choose test plans has been added as well as guidance on how to use spreadsheet programs to create them. Test plans A.1 to A.9 and B.1 to B.13 have been corrected;
– Subcluses 8.1, 8.2, 8.3, Clause 9, Annex C, Clauses G.2, I.2, I.3 and Annex J are unchanged, except for updated terminology and references.
The contents of the corrigendum of January 2013 have been included in this copy.

IEC 61163-1:2006


Reliability stress screening – Part 1: Repairable assemblies manufactured in lots

This part of IEC 61163 describes particular methods to apply and optimize reliability stress screening processes for lots of repairable hardware assemblies, in cases where the assemblies have an unacceptably low reliability in the early failure period, and when other methods, such as reliability growth programmes and quality control techniques, are not applicable.

IEC 61163-2:2020


Reliability stress screening – Part 2: Electronic components

IEC 61163-2:2020 provides guidance on RSS techniques and procedures for electrical, electronic, and mechanical components. This document is procedural in nature and is not, and cannot be, exhaustive with respect to component technologies due to the rapid rate of developments in the component industry. This document is: a) intended for component manufacturers as a guideline; b) intended for component users as a guideline to negotiate with component manufacturers on RSS requirements; c) intended to allow the planning of an RSS process in house to meet reliability requirements or to allow the re-qualification of components for specific, upgraded, environments; d) intended as a guideline to sub-contractors who provide RSS as a service. This document is not intended to provide test plans for specific components or for delivery of certificates of conformance for batches of components. The use of bi-modal Weibull analysis to select and optimize an RSS process without having to estimate the reliability and life time of all items is described. This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition published in 1998. This edition constitutes a technical revision.

IEC 62506:2013


Methods for product accelerated testing

IEC 62506:2013 provides guidance on the application of various accelerated test techniques for measurement or improvement of product reliability. Identification of potential failure modes that could be experienced in the use of a product/item and their mitigation is instrumental to ensure dependability of an item. The object of the methods is to either identify potential design weakness or provide information on item dependability, or to achieve necessary reliability/availability improvement, all within a compressed or accelerated period of time. This standard addresses accelerated testing of non-repairable and repairable systems. It can be used for probability ratio sequential tests, fixed duration tests and reliability improvement/growth tests, where the measure of reliability may differ from the standard probability of failure occurrence. This standard also extends to present accelerated testing or production screening methods that would identify weakness introduced into the product by manufacturing error, which could compromise product dependability.

Keywords: test techniques for measurement or improvement of product reliability.

<< back to structure Go to top

3.1.4 Reliability and availability support – Reliability growth


IEC 61014:2003
Edition 3 In Progress


Programmes for reliability growth  

Specifies requirements and gives guidelines for the exposure and removal of weaknesses in hardware and software items for the purpose of reliability growth. Applies when the product specification calls for a reliability growth programme of equipment (electronic, electromechanical and mechanical hardware as well as software) or when it is known that the design is unlikely to meet the requirements without improvement. The main changes with respect to the previous edition are listed below. A subclause on planning reliability growth in the design phase has been added. A subclause on management aspects covering both reliability growth in design and the test phase has been added. A clause on reliability growth in the field has been added.

IEC 61164:2004


Reliability growth – Statistical test and estimation methods

Gives models and numerical methods for reliability growth assessments based on failure data, which were generated in a reliability improvement programme. These procedures deal with growth, estimation, confidence intervals for product reliability and goodness-of-fit tests.

IEC 62429:2007


Reliability growth – Stress testing for early failures in unique complex systems

This international standard gives guidance for reliability growth during final testing or acceptance testing of unique complex systems. It gives guidance on accelerated test conditions and criteria for stopping these tests.

<< back to structure Go to top

3.2.1 Maintainability and supportability – Maintainability


IEC 60706-6:1994

Guide on maintainability of equipment – Part 6: Section 9: Statistical methods in maintainability evaluation
Replaced by IEC 60706-3:2006

IEC 60706-2:2006


Maintainability of equipment – Part 2: Maintainability requirements and studies during the design and development phase

This part of IEC 60706 examines the maintainability requirements and related design and use parameter, and discusses some activities necessary to achieve the required maintainability characteristics and their relationship to planning of maintenance. It describes the general approach in reaching these objectives and shows how maintainability characteristics should be specified in a requirements document or contract. It is not intended to be a complete guide on how to specify or to contract for maintainability. Its purpose is to define the range of considerations when maintainability characteristics are included as requirements for the development or the acquisition of an item.

IEC 60706-3:2006


Maintainability of equipment – Part 3:  Verification and collection, analysis and presentation of data

This part of IEC 60706 describes the various aspects of verification necessary to ensure that the specified maintainability requirements of an item have been met and provides suitable procedures and test methods. This standard also addresses the collection, analysis and presentation of maintainability related data, which may be required during, and at the completion of, design and during item production and operation.

IEC 60706-4:1992

Guide on maintainability of equipment – Part 4: Section 8: Maintenance and maintenance support planning
Replaced by IEC 60300-3-14:2004

IEC 60706-5:2007


Maintainability of equipment – Part 5: Testability and diagnostic testing

This guide has for purpose to provide guidance for the early consideration of testability aspects in design and development, and to assist in determining effective test procedures as an integral part of operation and maintenance. This second edition constitutes a technical revision. It expands and provides more detail on the techniques and systems broadly outlined in the first edition.

IEC 60706-6:1994

Guide on maintainability of equipment – Part 6: Section 9: Statistical methods in maintainability evaluation
Replaced by IEC 60706-3:2006

<< back to structure Go to top

3.2.2 Maintainability and supportability – Supportability


IEC 60300-3-11:2009


Dependability management – Part 3-11: Application guide – Reliability centred maintenance

Provides guidelines for the development of an initial preventive maintenance programme for equipment and structures using reliability centred maintenance (RCM) analysis techniques. RCM analysis can be applied to items such as ground vehicle, ship, power station, aircraft, etc, which are made up of equipment and structure, e.g. a building, airframe or ship’s hull. Typically an equipment comprises a number of electrical , mechanical, instrumentation or control systems and subsystems which can be further broken down into progressively smaller groupings, as required.

Keywords: Reliability, management, quality assurance systems, maintenance, terotechnology, research methods, quality, quality management, availability, safety, analysis, failure.

IEC 60300-3-16:2008


Dependability management – Part 3-16: Application guide – Guidelines for specification of maintenance support services

IEC 60300-3-16:2008 describes a framework for the specification of services related to the maintenance support of products, systems and equipment that are carried out during the operation and maintenance phase. The purpose of this standard is to outline, in a generic manner, the development of agreements for maintenance support services as well as guidelines for the management and monitoring of these agreements by both the company and the service provider.

IEC 62740:2015


Root cause analysis (RCA)

This international standard describes the basic principles of root cause analysis (RCA) and specifies the steps that a process for RCA should include. This standard identifies a number of attributes for RCA techniques which assist with the selection of an appropriate technique. It describes each RCA technique and its relative strengths and weaknesses. RCA is used to analyse the root causes of focus events with both positive and negative outcomes, but it is most commonly used for the analysis of failures and incidents. Causes for such events can be varied in nature, including design processes and techniques, organizational characteristics, human aspects and external events. RCA can be used for investigating the causes of non-conformances in quality (and other) management systems as well as for failure analysis, for example in maintenance or equipment testing. RCA is used to analyse focus events that have occurred, therefore this standard only covers a posteriori analyses. It is recognized that some of the RCA techniques with adaptation can be used proactively in the design and development of items and for causal analysis during risk assessment; however, this standard focuses on the analysis of events which have occurred. The intent of this standard is to describe a process for performing RCA and to explain the techniques for identifying root causes. These techniques are not designed to assign responsibility or liability, which is outside the scope of this standard.

<< back to structure Go to top

3.3.1 Risk assessment – risk assessment support

Publication Title

IEC 61882:2016


Hazard and operability studies (HAZOP studies) – Application guide

Provides a guide for HAZOP studies of systems using guide words. It gives guidance on application of the technique and on the HAZOP study procedure, including definition, preparation, examination sessions and resulting documentation and follow-up. Documentation examples, as well as a broad set of examples encompassing various applications, illustrating HAZOP studies are also provided.

<< back to structure Go to top

3.4.1 System dependability – System engineering


IEC 60300-3-3:2017


Dependability management – Part 3: Application guide – Section 3: Life cycle costing  

IEC 60300-3-3: 2017 establishes a general introduction to the concept of life cycle costing and covers all applications. Although costs incurred over the life cycle consist of many contributing elements, this document particularly highlights the costs associated with the dependability of an item. This forms part of an overall dependability management programme as described in IEC 60300-1. Guidance is provided on life cycle costing for use by managers, engineers, finance staff, and contractors; it is also intended to assist those who may be required to specify and commission such activities when undertaken by others. This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition published in 2004. This edition constitutes a technical revision. This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition:
– addition of a complete analysis process;
– greater reference to international accounting practices;
– increased discussion of financial concepts.

IEC 60300-3-4:2007
Ed 3.0 in progress


Dependability management – Part 3-4: Application guide – Guide to the specification of dependability requirements

Gives guidance on specifying required dependability characteristics in product and equipment specifications, together with specifications of procedures and criteria for verification. Includes advice on specifying quantitative and qualitative reliability, maintainability and availability requirements. The main changes from the previous edition are: the concept of systems has been included and the need to specify the dependability of the system and not just the physical equipment has been stressed; the need for verification and validation of the requirement has been included; differentiation has been made between requirements, that can be measured and verified and validated, and goals, which cannot; and the content on availability, maintainability and maintenance support has been updated and expanded to similar level of detail to reliability.

IEC 61160:2005


Design review

This international standard makes recommendations for the implementation of design review as a means of verifying that the design input requirements have been met and stimulating the improvement of the product’s design. The intention is for it to be applied during the design and development phase of a product’s life cycle. It provides guidelines for planning and conducting a design review and specific details concerning contributions by specialists in reliability, maintenance, maintenance support and availability.

IEC 61907:2009


Communication network dependability engineering

IEC 61907:2009 gives guidance on dependability engineering of communication networks. It establishes a generic framework for network dependability performance, provides a process for network dependability implementation, and presents criteria and methodology for network technology designs, performance evaluation, security consideration and quality of service measurement to achieve network dependability performance objectives. This standard is applicable to network equipment developers and suppliers, network integrators and providers of network service functions for planning, evaluation and implementation of network dependability.

IEC 62347:2006


Guidance on system dependability specifications

This international standard gives guidance on the preparation of system dependability specifications. It provides a process for system evaluation and presents a procedure for determining system dependability requirements. This international standard is not intended for certification or to perform conformity assessment for contractual purposes. It is not intended to change any rights or obligations provided by applicable statutory or regulatory requirements.

IEC 62673:2013


Methodology for communication network dependability assessment and assurance

IEC 62673:2013 describes a generic methodology for dependability assessment and assurance of communication networks from a network life cycle perspective. It presents the network dependability assessment strategies and methodology for analysis of network topology, evaluation of dependability of service paths, and optimization of network configurations in order to achieve network dependability performance and dependability of service. It also addresses the network dependability assurance strategies and methodology for application of network health check, network outage control and test case management to enhance and sustain dependability performance in network service operation. This standard is applicable to network service providers, network designers and developers, and network maintainers and operators for assurance of network dependability performance and assessment of dependability of service.

IEC 62960:2020


Dependability reviews during the life cycle  

IEC 62960:2020 provides guidance on a review methodology for dependability from a technical perspective that is applicable at all stages of a system life cycle. Its application can improve the dependability of a system throughout its life cycle by triggering appropriate actions at appropriate times to address potential dependability problems. It provides guidance for developers, manufacturers, users and third-party independent reviewers such as consulting organizations. This document describes a dependability review methodology focusing on:
– coherence of review activities across life cycle stages and their impact on dependability;
– stakeholder identification and how this affects dependability review activities;
– the relationships between different types of reviews;
– procedures for effective dependability reviews;
– examples of dependability review activities.

<< back to structure Go to top

3.4.2 System dependability – Human aspects


IEC 62508:2010


Guidance on human aspects of dependability

IEC 62508:2010 provides guidance on the human aspects of dependability, and the human-centred design methods and practices that can be used throughout the whole system life cycle to improve dependability performance. This standard describes qualitative approaches. This first edition cancels and replaces IEC PAS 62508 published in 2007.

<< back to structure Go to top

3.4.3 System dependability – Software


IEC 60300-3-6:1997

Dependability management – Part 3: Application guide – Section 6: Software aspects of dependability
Replaced by IEC 62628:2012

IEC 61713:2000

Software dependability through the software life cycle processes –Application guide
Replaced by IEC 62628:2012

IEC 62628:2012


Guidance on software aspects of dependability

Addresses the issues concerning software aspects of dependability and gives guidance on achievement of dependability in software performance influenced by management disciplines, design processes and application environments. It establishes a generic framework on software dependability requirements, provides a software dependability process for system life cycle applications, presents assurance criteria and methodology for software dependability design and implementation and provides practical approaches for performance evaluation and measurement of dependability characteristics in software systems.

Keywords: software, performance, dependability

IEC PAS 62814:2012



Dependability of software products containing reusable components – Guidance for functionality and tests

IEC PAS 62814:2012(E) introduces the concept of assuring reused components and their usage within new products. It provides information and criteria about the tests and analysis required for products containing such reused parts. The objective is to support the engineering requirements for functionality and tests of reusable software components and composite systems containing such components in evaluating and assuring reuse dependability.

Keywords: Reused software components, dependability

<< back to structure Go to top


4. Associated standards

4.1 Associated IEC standards with dependability relevance




<< back to structure Go to top

4.2 Associated ISO standards with dependability relevance


ISO 2394:2015

General principles on reliability for structures

ISO 3977-9:1999

Gas turbines – Procurement – Part 9: Reliability, availability, maintainability and safety

ISO 5843-8:1988

Aerospace – List of equivalent terms – Part 8: Aircraft reliability

ISO 6527:1982

Nuclear power plants – Reliability data exchange – General guidelines

ISO 7385:1983

Nuclear power plants – Guidelines to ensure quality of collected data on reliability

ISO 8930:1987

General principles on reliability for structures – List of equivalent terms

ISO/TR 12489:2013

Petroleum, petrochemical and natural gas industries – Reliability modelling and calculation of safety systems

ISO 12510:2004


Earth-moving machinery – Operation and maintenance – Maintainability guidelines

ISO 12510:2004 establishes guidelines for the incorporation of design features that promote safety, efficiency, reliability and ease of maintenance and service operations on earth-moving machinery as defined in ISO 6165.

ISO 14224:2016


Petroleum, petrochemical and natural gas industries – Collection and exchange of reliability and maintenance data for equipment

ISO 14224:2016 provides a comprehensive basis for the collection of reliability and maintenance (RM) data in a standard format for equipment in all facilities and operations within the petroleum, natural gas and petrochemical industries during the operational life cycle of equipment. It describes data collection principles and associated terms and definitions that constitute a “reliability language” that can be useful for communicating operational experience. The failure modes defined in the normative part of this international standard can be used as a “reliability thesaurus” for various quantitative as well as qualitative applications. This international standard also describes data quality control and assurance practices to provide guidance for the user. Standardization of data collection practices facilitates the exchange of information between parties, e.g. plants, owners, manufacturers and contractors. This international standard establishes requirements that any in-house or commercially available RM data system is required to meet when designed for RM data exchange. Examples, guidelines and principles for the exchange and merging of such RM data are addressed. This international standard also provides a framework and guidelines for establishing performance objectives and requirements for equipment reliability and availability performance. Annex A contains a summary of equipment that is covered by this international standard. ISO 14224:2016 defines a minimum amount of data that is required to be collected, and it focuses on two main issues: – data requirements for the categories of data to be collected for use in various analysis methodologies; – standardized data format to facilitate the exchange of reliability and maintenance data between plants, owners, manufacturers and contractors. The following main categories of data are to be collected: a) equipment data, e.g. equipment taxonomy, equipment attributes; b) failure data, e.g. failure cause, failure consequence; c) maintenance data, e.g. maintenance action, resources used, maintenance consequence, down time. NOTE Clause 9 gives further details on data content and data format. The main areas where such data are used are the following: 1) reliability, e.g. failure events and failure mechanisms; 2) availability/efficiency, e.g. equipment availability, system availability, plant production availability; 3) maintenance, e.g. corrective and preventive maintenance, maintenance plan, maintenance supportability; 4) safety and environment, e.g. equipment failures with adverse consequences for safety and/or environment. ISO 14224:2016 does not apply to the following: i. data on (direct) cost issues; ii. data from laboratory testing and manufacturing (e.g. accelerated lifetime testing), see also 5.2; iii. complete equipment data sheets (only data seen relevant for assessing the reliability performance are included); iv. additional on-service data that an operator, on an individual basis, can consider useful for operation and maintenance; v. methods for analysing and applying RM data (however, principles for how to calculate some basic reliability and maintenance parameters are included in the annexes).

ISO/IEC/IEEE 15288:2015


Systems and software engineering – System life cycle processes

ISO/IEC/IEEE 15288:2015 establishes a common framework of process descriptions for describing the life cycle of systems created by humans. It defines a set of processes and associated terminology from an engineering viewpoint. These processes can be applied at any level in the hierarchy of a system’s structure. Selected sets of these processes can be applied throughout the life cycle for managing and performing the stages of a system’s life cycle. This is accomplished through the involvement of all stakeholders, with the ultimate goal of achieving customer satisfaction. ISO/IEC/IEEE 15288:2015 also provides processes that support the definition, control and improvement of the system life cycle processes used within an organization or a project. Organizations and projects can use these processes when acquiring and supplying systems. ISO/IEC/IEEE 15288:2015 concerns those systems that are man-made and may be configured with one or more of the following system elements: hardware, software, data, humans, processes (e.g., processes for providing service to users), procedures (e.g., operator instructions), facilities, materials and naturally occurring entities.

ISO 15663-1:2000

Petroleum and natural gas industries – Life cycle costing – Part 1: Methodology

ISO 15663-2:2001

Petroleum and natural gas industries – Life-cycle costing – Part 2: Guidance on application of methodology and calculation methods

ISO 15663-3:2001

Petroleum and natural gas industries – Life-cycle costing – Part 3: Implementation guidelines

ISO/IEC 16085:2006


Systems and software engineering – Life cycle processes – Risk management

ISO/IEC 16085:2006 defines a process for the management of risk in the life cycle. It can be added to the existing set of system and software life cycle processes defined by ISO/IEC 15288 and ISO/IEC 12207, or it can be used independently. ISO/IEC 16085:2006 can be applied equally to systems and software. Risk management is a key discipline for making effective decisions and communicating the results within organizations. The purpose of risk management is to identify potential managerial and technical problems before they occur so that actions can be taken that reduce or eliminate the probability and/or impact of these problems should they occur. It is a critical tool for continuously determining the feasibility of project plans, for improving the search for and identification of potential problems that can affect life cycle activities and the quality and performance of products, and for improving the active management of projects

ISO 19973-1:2015

Pneumatic fluid power – Assessment of component reliability by testing – Part 1: General procedures

ISO 20815 (2018)

Petroleum, petrochemical and natural gas industries – Production assurance and reliability management

ISO 28598-1:2017

Acceptance sampling procedures based on the allocation of priorities principle (APP) – Part 1: Guidelines for the APP approach  (one of a series)

ISO 28598-2:2017

Acceptance sampling procedures based on the allocation of priorities principle (APP) – Part 2: Coordinated single sampling plans for acceptance sampling by attributes.
Was previously ISO 13448-2:2004.

ISO 31000:2018


Risk management – Guidelines

ISO 31000:2018 provides guidelines on managing risk faced by organizations. The application of these guidelines can be customized to any organization and its context.
ISO 31000:2018 provides a common approach to managing any type of risk and is not industry or sector specific.
ISO 31000:2018 can be used throughout the life of the organization and can be applied to any activity, including decision-making at all levels.

ISO GUIDE 73:2009

Risk management — Vocabulary

<< back to structure Go to top